Group of pictures and its structure

I (IDR) frames

P и B frames

Fig. 3 The GOP structure of video encoded in different ways: 3.1: M=1 N=10, no B frames, no SCD; 3.2: M=2 N=20, B = 1, no SCD; 3.3: M=4 N=30, B = 3, pyramid, SCD.

How to configure encoder for TV broadcasting: tips

  • Length. Long GOPs are used in files or in ОТТ broadcasting (for example, when the GOP length in seconds is equal to the chunk duration). For live broadcasting, a smaller GOP is recommended for several reasons, such as:
  • Structure. For better quality, use a hierarchical (pyramidal) GOP. This mode allows B frames to reference each other. Adaptive selection of the number of
    B frames is suited for encoding highly dynamic video sequences with complex motion. In moments of such complex motion, the number of P frames increases, and the GOP structure changes.
  • Scene change detection. Most encoders detect a scene view change and insert a full I frame into the scene automatically. However, if the content features frequent scene view changes (e.g. news), inserting full frames can cause the GOP structure to change. This will add several extra seconds of latency to the stream. If a buffer overrun occurs in the receiving device, the viewers will see frozen pictures and pixelation (scene change detection can be seen in Fig. 3).
  • Average (avg) encode ratio for the entire stream and I, P, and B frames: shows the compression ratio for the raw video. It can be used to verify the overall encoder performance, check whether the encoder has maintained the required proportions in terms of avg[EncRatio(I)] << avg[EncRatio(P)] << avg[EncRatio(B)], and compare the performance of two encoders using a common set of media files.
Fig. 4 Video sequence information (including encode ratio).

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Elecard Company

Elecard Company

Leading provider of components and software products for analysis, monitoring, encoding, decoding and streaming digital video and audio data.

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